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Ebola Outbreaks: Understanding the Deadly Virus

Ebola virus disease, also known as EVD, is a severe illness that is rare in humans. The disease is often fatal and is caused by the Ebola virus. Ebola can be contracted through direct contact with infected animals, such as when preparing, cooking, or eating them, or through the bodily fluids of infected persons. The virus enters the body through cuts in the skin or through contact with the eyes, nose, or mouth. Early symptoms of Ebola include fever, fatigue, and headache, while later symptoms can include vomiting, diarrhea, rash, and internal and external bleeding. The time from infection to symptoms is typically from 2 to 21 days.

The Ebola virus was first identified in 1976 during simultaneous outbreaks in Nzara, South Sudan, and Yambuku, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The latter outbreak occurred in a village near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name. The virus family Filoviridae includes 3 genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus, with 6 species identified within the Ebolavirus genus: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Taï Forest, Reston, and Bombali.


Ebola is caused by the Ebola virus, which is a member of the Filoviridae virus family. The virus family includes three genera: Cuevavirus, Marburgvirus, and Ebolavirus. Within the genus Ebolavirus, six species have been identified: Zaire, Bundibugyo, Sudan, Taï Forest, Reston, and Bombali.


It is believed that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural Ebola virus hosts. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of infected animals such as fruit bats, chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope, or porcupines found ill or dead in the rainforest.

Ebola then spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with:

  • Blood or body fluids of a person who is sick with or has died from Ebola
  • Objects that have been contaminated with body fluids (like blood, feces, vomit) from a person sick with Ebola or the body of a person who died from Ebola.

Health-care workers have frequently been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed Ebola. This occurs through close contact with patients when infection control precautions are not strictly practiced. Burial ceremonies that involve direct contact with the body of the deceased can also contribute to the transmission of Ebola.

Symptoms The symptoms of Ebola infection can be sudden and include:

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle pain
  • Headache
  • Sore throat

These are followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rash, and internal and external bleeding. The time from when someone gets infected to having symptoms is usually from 2 to 21 days. A person with Ebola can only spread the disease once they have symptoms. People can spread Ebola for as long as their body contains the virus, even after they have died.

After recovering from Ebola, some people may have symptoms for two years or longer. These symptoms can include:

  • Feeling tired
  • Headache
  • Muscle and joint pain
  • Eye pain and vision problems
  • Weight gain
  • Belly pain and loss of appetite
  • Hair loss and skin problems
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Memory loss
  • Hearing loss
  • Depression and anxiety


It can be difficult to clinically distinguish Ebola virus disease from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever, and meningitis. Many symptoms of pregnancy and Ebola disease are also quite similar. Because of risks to the pregnancy and themselves, pregnant women should ideally be tested rapidly if Ebola is suspected.

Confirmation that symptoms are caused by Ebola virus infection is made using the following diagnostic methods:

  • Antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • Antigen-capture detection tests
  • Serum neutralization test
  • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay
  • Electron microscopy
  • Virus isolation by cell culture.


There is currently no specific cure or vaccine for Ebola. However, early treatment can increase the patient’s chances of survival. The treatment for Ebola involves managing the symptoms and providing supportive care. It includes:

  1. Hydration: Keeping the patient hydrated is crucial in the treatment of Ebola. Oral or intravenous fluids are given to maintain the body’s fluid balance.
  2. Pain relief: Pain is a common symptom of Ebola, and medicines are given to relieve the pain.
  3. Treat other infections: The patient may have other infections, such as malaria or pneumonia, which need to be treated simultaneously.
  4. Blood transfusions: In severe cases, blood transfusions may be necessary to replace lost blood.
  5. Experimental treatments: Experimental treatments are being researched and tested to treat Ebola. These treatments include monoclonal antibodies, which are artificially produced immune system proteins that target the virus.


Preventing Ebola requires both individual and community efforts. Here are some preventive measures to reduce the risk of getting infected:

  1. Avoid close contact with infected individuals or animals, especially those showing symptoms of the disease.
  2. Practice good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly with soap and water, using hand sanitizers, and avoiding touching the face.
  3. Wear protective gear, such as gloves and masks, when caring for an infected person.
  4. Handle animals with care, and avoid consuming bushmeat.
  5. Practice safe burial procedures.
  6. Get vaccinated: A vaccine for the Zaire type of Ebola is available, and it has been found to be highly effective in preventing the disease.


Ebola is a highly contagious and deadly disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans and between humans. The disease is prevalent in Africa, and outbreaks occur from time to time. Although there is no specific cure for Ebola, early treatment can increase the chances of survival. Preventive measures, such as avoiding close contact with infected individuals or animals, practicing good hygiene, and getting vaccinated, can help reduce the risk of getting infected. It is essential to stay informed and follow guidelines from health organizations, such as the WHO, to prevent the spread of the disease.